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Report of the First Meeting on CFMC/WECAFC/OSPESCA/CRFM Working Group on Spawning Aggregations Miami, United States of America 29-31 Oct 2013
The first meeting of the CFMC/WECAFC/OSPESCA/CRFM Working Group on Spawning Aggregations was held in Miami, United States of America, from 29 to 31 October 2013. The meeting brought together experts working on spawning aggregations of fish from all over Western Central Atlantic region.
Report of the Sixth Session of the Scientific Advisory Group - WECAFC Corpus Christi, United States of America - 3 Nov 2013
The SAG discussed the outcomes of the work carried out by various joint working groups in 2012-2013, the fisheries resource status in the Wider Caribbean Region, a review of the current fisheries management performance and conservation measures in the WECAFC Region, and activities to be undertaken by WECAFC in 2014-2015. The SAG further discussed WECAFC collaboration with the Fisheries Resource Management System (FIRMS) and prepared a range of recommendations for consideration by the Fifteenth session of WECAFC.
Cephalopods of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cephalopod Species Known to Date Volume 3, Octopods and Vampire Squids
This is the third volume of the entirely rewritten, revised and updated version of the original FAO Catalogue of Cephalopods of the World (1984). The present volume is a multiauthored compilation that reviews 13 families, i.e. (in alphabetical order), Alloposidae, Amphitretidae, Argonautidae, Bolitaenidae, Cirroctopodidae, Cirroteuthidae, Octopodidae, Ocythoidae, Opisthoteuthidae, Stauroteuthidae, Tremoctopodidae, Vampyroteuthidae, Vitreledonellidae, with 56 genera and the 279 species known and named to the date of the completion of the volume.
State of the World's Forests

This edition of FAO’s State of the World’s Forests report (SOFO 2014) addresses this knowledge gap by systematically gathering and analyzing available data on forests’ contributions to people’s livelihoods, food, health, shelter and energy needs. Crucially, the report also suggests how information might be improved and policies adjusted, so that the socioeconomic benefits from forests can be enhanced in the future.

Decision Tools for Family Poultry Development
This publication provides guidance for personnel in governments, development organizations and NGOs to better determine and plan development interventions for family poultry. Practical technical information are provided about genetics and reproduction, feeds and feeding, poultry health, housing, marketing and value chain development, microfinance and credit, institutional development, training and extension, and creating an enabling policy. Guidance is then provided on how to utilize this relevant information to design and develop projects targeted at specific conditions.
Residue evaluation of certain veterinary drugs Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives
This document contains monographs on residue evaluations of certain veterinary drugs, prepared at the seventy-eight meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), which was held in Geneva, Switzerland, from 5 to 14 November 2013. Four substances were evaluated for the first time – emamectin benzoate, gentian violet, lasalocid sodium and zilpaterol hydrochloride. Four additional substances were re-evaluated – derquantel, ivermectin, monepantel and recombinant bovine somatotrophins.
Yearbook of Forest Products
The FAO Yearbook of Forest Products is a compilation of statistical data on basic forest products for all countries and territories of the world. It contains series of annual data on the volume of production and the volume and value of trade in forest products. It includes tables showing direction of trade and average unit values of trade for certain products. Statistical information in the yearbook is based primarily on data provided to the FAO Forestry Department by the countries through questionnaires or official publications. In the absence of official data, FAO makes an estimate based on the best information available.
Adapting to climate change through land and water management in Eastern Africa Results of pilot projects in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania
The publication describes a series of pilot activities that successfully contributed to enhanced resilience of farming communities and offer substantial opportunities for up scaling. This experience shows that a boost in investment is needed to ensure a more sustainable and resilient management of an already declining resource base, and that adapting to climate change in the region will require renewed efforts in improving land and water management through supportive policies, capacity development and targeted investments.
Aquatic Biodiversity in Rice-based Ecosystems - Studies and Reports from Indonesia, Lao PDR and the Philippines
This report contains the assessments of availability and use of aquatic organisms in rice ecosystems conducted in late 2013 in four sites in Indonesia. The documentation was made of the animal and plant organisms found in the study sites and being collected by the people, the methods and tools to capture or gather them, and their uses as food, medicine and for other purposes. Local people have generally acknowledged a general decline in the abundance and diversity of the species. Factors included the intensification of rice cultivation accompanied by the use of chemical inputs, increasing exploitation driven by population increase and in some cases a high market demand for some species, and destructive fishing.
Contract Farming for Inclusive Market Access
This book aims to typify the extent to which contract farming is helping small farmers to access markets and meet stringent requirements of manufacturers, retailers, exporters and service firms, from both food and non-food sectors such as biofuels and forestry. It clarifies differences in the functionality of contracts depending on commodity, market, technology, public policies and country circumstances. Conceptual issues are discussed and real-world case study appraisals from developing regions are presented. The issues raised in the case studies and the key messages synthesized in the initial chapter bring new insights and contributions to further enrich knowledge on contract farming as a tool for inclusive market access in developing countries.
State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture
FAO’s State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture presents a world review of fisheries and aquaculture including trends and statistics. This year’s publication presents trends in fish production, consumption and trade, as well FAO’s “Blue Growth” initiative, which represents a coherent framework for the sustainable integrated and socio-economically sensitive management of oceans and wetlands. Other themes highlighted include the role of aquaculture in improving nutrition, the importance of reducing post-harvest losses in small-scale fisheries and challenges and opportunities for utilization of fisheries by-products.
State of Food and Agriculture

More than 500 million family farms manage most of world’s agricultural land and produce most of its food. They are very diverse, including many who are poor with low levels of productivity. All of them must become more innovative to ensure sustainable productivity growth. Strategies to support innovation must recognize the diversity among family farms and focus on increasing yields, preserving natural resources and raising rural incomes. This requires an innovation system that facilitates and coordinates the activities of all stakeholders involved in agricultural innovation.

International Code of Conduct on Pesticide Management (The)
The objectives of this Code are to establish voluntary standards of conduct for all public and private entities engaged in or associated with the management of pesticides, particularly where there is inadequate or no national legislation to regulate pesticides.
Global plan of action for the conservation, sustainable use and development of forest genetic resources
Forest genetic resources (FGR) are the heritable materials maintained within and among tree and other woody plant species that are of actual or potential economic, environmental, scientific or societal value. This Global Plan of Action is an integral part of FAO's efforts to increase and improve provision of goods and services from agriculture, forestry and fisheries in a sustainable manner.
Pollinator safety in agriculture
A key element of any organism's pesticide risk is its natural history, and the routes by which it may be exposed to pesticides in foraging and nesting activities. In this respect, a series of presentations on the natural history of wild bee groups and pesticide exposure were solicited for a session on "Exploring pesticide effects on non-Apis bees" at the 10th International Symposium on Pollination, convened by the International Commission on Plant-Bee Relations. The presentations have been more fully developed for the present publication, as a contribution to knowledge management of pollination services in sustainable agriculture.
CAPFITOGEN - Programme to Strengthen National Plant Genetic Resource Capacities in Latin America
This program is focused on the development of appropriate technologies for countries which are extremely agrobiodiverse but have limited economic resources. Its function is to develop and transfer technology and provide the appropriate training for technical personnel from those Latin American countries signatories to the Treaty.
Fisheries and Aquaculture Emergency Response Guidance
People who depend on fisheries and aquaculture for their livelihoods face both an increasing number and intensity of natural disasters. Most small-scale fishers and fish workers live in developing countries, and often face a range of diverse problems that increase their vulnerability to hazards including food insecurity, poverty, pollution, environmental degradation, overexploitation of resources, high levels of accidents at sea and conflicts with industrial fishing operations. The specific characteristics of fishing and fish farming operations (such as location and exposure) also increase vulnerability to hazards. These guidelines were developed following a meeting of experts in 2013 (FAO, 2013a).
Making Integrated Food-Energy Systems Work for People and Climate - An Overview
A safe integration of food and energy production may be one of the best ways to improve national food and energy security and simultaneously reduce poverty in a climate smart way. This study on Integrated Food-Energy Systems (IFES) draws some lessons on constraints to scale up IFES and opportunities to overcome them from examples from Africa, Asia and Latin America as well as from some developed countries.
Communication for Rural Development Sourcebook
The Communication for Rural Development Sourcebook is a needed and timely resource to improve a wide range of FAO undertakings aimed at achieving food and nutrition security, sustainable agricultural development, climate adaptation and disaster risk reduction. In the framework of the new organizational strategic objectives, this sourcebook has a great potential to strengthen the communication skills of FAO staff, particularly in regional and country offices, as well as partners in other development agencies, national governments and local organizations striving for inclusive rural development.
State of Food Insecurity in the World
The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2014 presents updated estimates of undernourishment and progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and World Food Summit (WFS) hunger targets. A stock-taking of where we stand on reducing hunger and malnutrition shows that progress in hunger reduction at the global level and in many countries has continued but that substantial additional effort is needed in others.
Assessment and management of seafood safety and quality: Current Practices and emerging issues
This technical paper compiles the state of knowledge on seafood safety and quality with the aim to provide a succinct yet comprehensive resource book to seafood quality for safety managers, including topics on emerging issues such as new pathogens, the impact of climate change on seafood safety, and the changing regulatory framework.
FAO Yearbook. Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics
Ensuring responsible and sustainable fisheries management around the world requires standardized, reliable and up-to-date information for sound decision-making. FAO, as the only repository for global fishery data, regularly collects and analyses fisheries statistics. This publication is trilingual (Available in English, Spanish and French).
Gap Analysis of National and Regional Fisheries and Aquaculture Priorities and Initiatives in Western and Central Africa in Respect to Climate Change and Disasters
African fishers and fish farmers are particularly vulnerable to disasters and climate change impacts. The objective of the study was to identify regional and national gaps and opportunities to reduce the vulnerability of the sector to impacts from climate change and increase the resilience of fisheries and aquaculture livelihoods to disasters. A total of 23 countries, 16 of which are least developed countries (LDCs), were considered for Western and Central Africa. Overall, 27 gaps or recommendations were identified. The findings will be used to inform advice for the formulation of the Policy Framework and Reform Strategy for Fisheries and Aquaculture in Africa.
State of the World's Forest Genetic Resources
The State of the World’s Forest Genetic Resources addresses the conservation, management and sustainable use of forest tree and other woody plant genetic resources of actual and potential value for human well-being in the broad range of management systems. The report complements two other FAO flagship publications in the field of forestry, the annual State of the World’s Forests and the periodic Global Forest Resources Assessment.
Report of the FAO/NEPAD Workshop on Cimate Change, Disasters and Crises in the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector in Southern and Eastern Africa Maputo, Mozambique 22-24 April 2013
The purpose of the regional Workshop on Climate Change, Disasters and Crises in the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector in Southern and Eastern Africa was to determine the gaps in adaptation and disaster risk management strategies, policies and activities that aim to assist fishers, fish farmers, fish workers and the communities they live in to improve their resilience to the impacts of disasters and climate change, and to identify ways to address these gaps based on the experience of the participants.
Age Determination of Elasmobranch, with special reference to Mediterranean species - A Technical Manual
Age information is an essential component in growth rate, mortality rate and productivity calculations, hence it is classified among the most influential of biological variables. In this manual, the most recognized age determination methods for elasmobranchs have been brought together so as to provide a detailed and hands-on guide to successful and validated methods for ageing sharks, skates and rays. Particular emphasis is given to vertebral sections and image analysis techniques as applied to elasmobranch species from the Mediterranean Sea, suited to both novice and experienced age readers.
Guidelines for Assessing Nutrition-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices
The Guidelines for assessing nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes and practices is a reference guide and practical tool for conducting high-quality surveys of nutrition- and health-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP ) at the community level. The manual is written for people in charge of planning, implementing and evaluating food security and nutrition projects; these include project managers, nutritionists, health workers, planning and evaluation specialists and many others.
Report of the Seventh Session of the Sub-Committee on Aquaculture, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation, 7-11 October 2013
This document contains the report of the session adopted by the Sub-Committee. The Sub-Committee approved the draft terms of reference for an advisory working group on aquatic genetic resources and technologies and the draft evaluation framework assessing conformity of public and private certification schemes with the FAO technical guidelines on aquaculture certification.
Voluntary Standards for Sustainable Food Systems: Challenges and Opportunities
Voluntary standards are increasingly being presented as a tool to foster sustainable consumption and production. They are very often seen as the solution, the tool to make consumption and production more sustainable. They can deliver positive economic, environmental or social impacts, but they can also present challenges, particularly for small-scale producers. This publication is a compilation of the papers presented at the workshop, organized by the FAO/UNEP program in June 2013.
Improving Diets and Nutrition - Food-Based Approaches
Nutrition-sensitive, food-based approaches towards hunger and malnutrition -- this book discusses the policy, strategic, methodological, technical and programmatic issues associated with such approaches. It also provides practical lessons for advancing nutrition-sensitive, food-based approaches. It is a useful resource for decision- and policy-makers, program planners and implementers.
Report of the fourteenth session of the sub-committee on fish trade, Bergen, Norway 24-28 February 2014
The Committee on Fisheries established the Sub-Committee on Fish Trade to serve as a multilateral framework for consultations on international trade in fishery products. The fourteenth session of the Sub-Committee was held in Bergen, Norway, from 24 to 28 February 2014. The Sub-Committee took note of recent developments concerning international trade in fishery products. It also considered specific issues related to international trade and sustainable fisheries development.
Report of the Seventh meeting of the RECOFI working group on fisheries management, Kuwait 5-7 November 2013
This document contains the report of the Seventh Meeting of the Regional Commission for Fisheries (RECOFI) Working Group on Fisheries Management (WGFM), which was held in Kuwait City, the State of Kuwait, from 5 to 7 November 2013. The WGFM addressed and made decisions on matters concerning relevant follow-up to the sixth meeting of the RECOFI WGFM and to the Seventh Session of RECOFI that was held in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, during the period from 14 to 16 May 2013. Country reports on the status of national fisheries were presented and discussed. The WGFM formulated further work on the socio-economics of fisheries in the region.
Deep-sea Cartilaginous Fishes of the Indian Ocean Batoids and Chimaeras - Volume 2
This volume is a comprehensive, fully illustrated Catalogue of the Deep-sea Batoids and Chimaeras of the Indian Ocean, encompassing FAO Fishing Areas 51 and 57, and a portion of Area 47. The present volume includes 4 orders, 10 families, 28 genera, and 78 species of batoid and chimaera-like fishes occurring in the Indian Ocean Deep-sea. The Catalogue includes a section on standard measurements for batoids and chimaeras with associated terms. The volume is fully indexed and also includes sections on terminology and measurements including an extensive glossary, a list of species by FAO Statistical Areas and a dedicated bibliography.
Guidelines for the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector on Damage and Needs Assessments in Emergencies
These guidelines are for use in post-emergency damage and needs assessment. The guidelines provide advice and a structure for assessing the requirements of relief and rehabilitation relating directly to fisheries and aquaculture.
Report of the FAO/NEPAD Workshop on Climate Change, Disaster and Crises in the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector in West and Central Africa
The purpose of the regional Workshop on Climate Change, Disasters and Crises in the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector in West and Central Africa was to contribute to a process that is currently under way to determine the gaps in adaptation and disaster risk management strategies, policies and activities that aim to assist fishers, fish farmers, fish workers and the communities they live in to improve their resilience to the impacts of disasters and climate change, and to identify areas to address these gaps based on the experience of the participants.
Developing New Approaches to Global Stock Status Assessment and Fishery Production Potential of the Seas
Stock status is a key parameter for evaluating the sustainability of fishery resources and developing corresponding management plans. Unfortunately, the majority of stocks are not assessed, often as a result of insufficient data and the lack of resources needed to execute formal stock assessments. This working group focused on two approaches to estimating fisheries status: one based on single stock status and the other based on ecosystem production.
Inland Fisheries Evolution and Management: Case Studies from Four Continents
In 2009 inland fisheries produced some 10 million tons of fish. Despite their importance to rural communities, especially in the least developed countries, little attention has been paid to the sector in recent years. As a result there is a deficit in management of the fisheries and also an increasing threat to freshwater by a number of non-fishery users of the aquatic resource. As part of an effort to raise awareness of the various problems facing inland fisheries and to examine more closely the various issues this document reviews four of the world's best documented inland fisheries - the Mekong, the Amazon, Lake Constance and Lake Victoria. These represent two lake fisheries and two river fisheries drawn from a wide geographical sample – Africa, Asia, South America and Europe.
Evidence-Based Assessment of the Sustainability and Replicability of Integrated Food-Energy Systems - A Guide Document
This publication presents an analytical framework which serves to screen different IFES options systematically and helps to define which IFES systems are sustainable and replicable. In concrete terms, this framework is envisioned to be a guidance document that allows its user to assess which factors make an IFES truly sustainable and which factors need to be considered when replicating such a system - be it a pilot project, a business innovation or a research experiment. Furthermore, it helps to systematically describe the potential contribution of IFES to sustainable agriculture and the growing bio-economy, and to raise awareness among decision-makers about which factors can facilitate the replication of such innovative projects.
Implementation Guidelines on Part B of the Code, the Voluntary Guidelines and the Safety Recommendations
The Implementation Guidelines are intended for the attention of maritime, labor and fisheries ministries and any other relevant government ministry as and when it is decided to implement the three FAO/ILO/IMO instruments on the design, construction and equipment of fishing vessels of all types and sizes. The Implementation Guidelines cover areas such as: development of a safety strategy; legal implications; administrative requirements; capacity-building; training of crew members; enforcement of regulations; and operational safety.
Appropriate Food Packaging Solutions for Developing Countries
The study was undertaken to serve as a basis for the international congress Save Food!, taking place from 16 to 17 May 2011, at the international packaging industry fair Interpack2011 in Düsseldorf, Germany. Save Food! has been co-organized by Interpack2011 and FAO, aiming to raise awareness on global food losses and waste. In addition, Save Food! brings to the attention of the international packaging industry the constraints faced by the small- and medium-scale food processing industries in developing countries to obtain access to adequate packaging materials which are economically feasible. This revised edition, dated 2014, contains a new section on investment opportunities in developing countries.
Animal Genetic Resources - an international journal
Animal Genetic Resources is an international journal published by Cambridge University Press under the auspices of FAO’s Animal Genetic Resources Branch. The journal provides an international forum for the publication of papers related to the management of animal genetic resources for food and agriculture. This 53rd volume includes a special issue on adding value to livestock breeds. The idea for this was born during the session "Strategies to add value to local breeds"at the 61st Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science held in August 2010, in Crete, Greece. Nine papers are presented here.

Report of the Thirty-Seventh Session General Fisheries Commision for the Mediterranean, Split, Croatia 13-17 May 2013
This year's session was marked by substantial steps forward to support the reform process launched in 2009 with the aim to modernize the institutional framework and ensure a more efficient functioning of the commission. In addition the session adopted guidelines on precautionary conservation measures aimed at minimizing undesirable effects on stocks and improving fisheries economic profitability.
FAO's BEFS Bioenergy and Food Security Approach - Implementation Guide

The objective of this document is to assist stakeholders, primarily policymakers, who wish to develop bioenergy options that safeguard food security. The guidance in this document is based on FAO’s Bioenergy and Food Security Approach (BEFS ).

Strengthening Organization and Collective Action in Fisheries: A Way Forward in Implementing the International Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries

This document provides a summary of the Workshop held in Rome, 18-20 March 2013. The workshop anticipated the implementation of the SSF Guidelines by looking at the diversity of existing organizations and collective action in SSFs, analyzing their strengths and weaknesses, and proposing elements for a capacity development strategy to reduce poverty while promoting responsible fisheries. The document contains a summary of the plenary presentations and discussions, the working group outcomes and is complemented by the full text of two backgroup papers.

Growing Greener Cities in Latin America and the Caribbean
This report looks at progress made in “growing greener cities” in Latin America and the Caribbean – cities in which urban and peri-urban agriculture is recognized by public policy, included in urban development strategies and land-use planning, supported by agricultural research and extension, and linked to sources of technological innovation, investment and credit, and to urban markets and consumers.
Multicriteria-based Ranking for Risk Management of Food-borne Parasites
This report presents the results of a global ranking of food-borne parasites from a food safety perspective. It also provides an overview of the current status of knowledge of the ranked parasites in food and their public health and trade impact, and provides advice and guidance on the parasite-commodity combinations of particular concern, the issues that need to be addressed by risk managers, and the risk management options available to them. It documents the ranking process used to facilitate its adoption at regional, national, or local levels.
Pesticide Residues in Food
The annual Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment and the WHO Core Assessment Group on Pesticide Residues was held in pursuance of recommendations made by previous Meetings. This report contains information on ADIs, ARfDs, maximum residue levels, and general principles for the evaluation of pesticides. The recommendations of the Joint Meeting, including further research and information, are proposed for use by Member governments of the respective agencies and other interested parties.

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